Turkey is a unitary presidential constitutional republic, a non-federal system that answers to a central government similar to the UK, as opposed to the federal state system of the USA. Turkey’s legislative branch is composed of the Grand National Assembly, while the executive branch is composed of the President and Cabinet.
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One particular historical figure is so foundational to Turkish politics that it can’t be understood without at least briefly touching on his life.
For more than 600 years the Ottoman Empire ruled over large areas of the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe. By 1914 the Ottoman Empire’s territory had been diminished until it controlled only the region now known as Turkey and a coastal strip of the Middle East. After the Ottoman Empire’s defeat in WW1; Britain, France, and Italy partitioned and occupied much of the erstwhile Ottoman territory. What followed is now known as the Turkish War of Independence. The Turkish National Movement, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, fought for Turkish self-determination and emerged victorious in 1923. Atatürk dissolved the Ottoman Empire and founded the Turkish Republic.