Cookie Consent by TermsFeed The Speaker


Explaining Politics: China

The People's Republic of China is ruled by the Communist Party and the government structure is divided into several different sections. There is the State Council, the military branch, the supervision council, the judicial branch, the National People's Congress, and the Politburo Standing Committee.

The National People's Congress (NPC) membership mostly consists of members of the Communist Party of China (CPC), along with several other parties that act as subordinates to the CPC. The NPC is made up of 2,987 delegates from across China, with the CPC representing 2,119 of those members. This means that all the laws the NPC votes on and who gets appointed to which positions are decided by the CPC, headed by Xi Jinping. The CPC sends pieces of legislation to the NPC for consideration, and in the entire history of the NPC, none of these government proposals have been rejected.

Ruling over the state of China is president Xi Jinping, who leads the country and is the head of China's one-party system. The head of the government and premiere is Li Keqiang, whose job it is to deal with the government bureaucracy and heads the State Council. As president, Jinping is in charge of the Chinese military and foreign diplomacy, appoints diplomats and the premiere, and can issue presidential pardons. The president and vice president are elected every five years by the newly elected NPC members, and before the term limit abolishment in 2018, the president and vice president had term limits and could not serve two consecutive years in office.

While the NPC members are elected to five-year terms and the body only meets once a year, the Politburo Standing Committee, which meets every few months, has a greater say in the legislation of China. This committee is made up of 25 members and consists of those in charge of the CPC. The Standing Committee decides what legislation gets sent to the NPC for consideration and it requires fierce loyalty to the CPC for anyone to have a shot at being a part of the Standing Committee. 

China is divided into 23 provinces, five regions, two special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, and four municipalities. These areas are governed by 7,000 members of the CPC appointed by the Communist Party, with governors in charge of each of the different provinces. 

The judicial aspect of the Chinese government consists of four different levels of courts, from the Basic People's Court, to the Intermediate People's Court, the Higher People's Court, and finally the Supreme People's Courts. The final level of court has it's members elected by the NPC to serve a five year term and is split into different divisions, such as the criminal division, civil division, and economic division to address different aspects of the cases the Supreme People's Court hears.

Follow Us On Social Media!

For the latest top political news, features and content, follow us at @speakerpolitics.