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What are some of the key points of the UK-EU post-Brexit trade deal?

What are some of the key points of the UK-EU post-Brexit trade deal?

On Christmas Eve and just days before the end of the transition period, a post-Brexit trade deal has been agreed between the UK and EU.

MPs will debate and vote on the deal on 30 December and the Labour Party have already said that they will vote for it. Barring any major upset at home or in the EU, the agreement is expected to be passed into law.

The full text can be read here, but here's a look at some of the key points in the trade deal...


- There will no longer be free movement of people and UK nationals will no longer have the freedom to live/work in the EU
- UK nationals can visit the EU for up to 90 days in a 180 day period without a visa, but there will be extra border checks
- UK and EU to cooperate on aviation safety, security and air traffic management
- UK airlines can no longer operate flights between EU destinations on just a UK-issued licence
- UK will no longer participate in EU Single Market for transport services


- Transition period of 5.5 years during which access to fish in each other's waters remains unchanged
- UK to become an independent coastal state, free to decide on access to its waters and fishing grounds
- UK fishery products will face checks and customs upon arrival into the EU
- New arrangements agreed for sustainable management of shared fish stocks in UK & EU waters


- UK will no longer have access to sensitive EU databases and networks that support security and justice
- UK will co-operate with EU institutions such as Europol and Eurojust but will not participate in them
- Co-operation on cross-border health security threats has been agreed
- Mechanisms will be established for swift exchanges of information such as Passenger Name Records, fingerprints etc


- UK will no longer participate in EU internal energy market
- The UK and EU will cooperate in the North Sea over offshore energy
- Commitments are included towards the Paris Climate Agreement


- There will be more red tape for businesses in trading goods, including extra checks at borders which may result in delays
- There will, however, be zero tariffs or quotas on goods traded, which should ensure lower prices for consumers
- UK producers wishing to cater to both EU and UK markets must meet both sets of standards and regulations


- Doctors, nurses and other professionals will no longer have their qualifications automatically recognised across all EU states
- There will be facilitations for short-term business trips and temporary secondments of employees which are highly-skilled
- Unjustified barriers to digital trade will be removed 


- UK to no longer benefit from EU funding programmes such as for regional development, agriculture and more
- UK to be excluded from sensitive, high-security projects
- UK students will no longer be able to benefit from the Erasmus scheme, though alternative is to be setup
- UK to participate in 5 schemes open to third-party countries, such as Horizon Europe (research and innovation) & Copernicus (earth monitoring system)